Senegal Thick-Knee

The Senegal Thick-Knee or Stone-Curlew (Burhinus senegalensis Swainson, 1837) : New Record for Palestine

طير الكروان الحجري السنغالي : تسجيل جديد في فلسطين

By : Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

Article Reference :  Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2017). The Senegal Thick-Knee or Stone-Curlew (Burhinus senegalensis Swainson, 1837): New Record for Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 148, April 2017. pp. 1-13. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-palestine-2.webs.com/senegal-thick-knee

The Senegal Thick-Knee or Stone-Curlew (Burhinus senegalensis Swainson, 1837) near the fish ponds at Ma’agan Michael Kibbutz, near Jisr az-Zarqa, north Palestine. Photo by Chen Rozen. 08.07.2015. http://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-4678028,00.html

On Wednesday 08th July 2015, a Senegal Thick-Knee or Stone-Curlew (Burhinus senegalensis Swainson, 1837) was observed and photographed near the fish ponds at Ma’agan Michael Kibbutz, near Jisr az-Zarqa and the Timsah (Taninim) Stream, north Palestine. It is the first record for Palestine and Israel; and the bird was first observed and photographed by the Birder Chen Rozen.

The Senegal Thick-Knee or Stone-Curlew (Burhinus senegalensis Swainson, 1837) in flight near the fish ponds at Ma’agan Michael Kibbutz, near Jisr az-Zarqa, north Palestine. Photo by Chen Rozen. 08.07.2015. http://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-4678028,00.html

The Senegal Thick-Knee (Burhinus senegalensis) is a Stone-Curlew, a group of waders in the family Burhinidae (Wikipedia).


It is a resident breeder in Africa between the Sahara and the equator, and in the Nile valley, and north Sinai.


Senegal thick-knees are medium-large waders with strong black and yellow black bills, large yellow eyes — which give them a reptilian appearance — and cryptic plumage. Thick-Knee refers to the prominent joints in the long yellow or greenish legs, and apparently originated with a name coined in 1776 for Burhinus oedicnemus, the Thick-Kneed Bustard (Lee’s Birdwatching).


The Senegal thick-knee is a quick ground bird, with long and strong legs, large yellow eyes which allow it to be active day and night; and it is capable of excellent camouflage. The bird is able to run at times of danger or when chasing a prey (YNet).


They are similar but slightly smaller than the Eurasian stone-curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus), which winters in Africa. The long dark bill, single black bar on the folded wing, and darker cheek stripe are distinctions from the European species. Senegal thick-knee is striking in flight; with a broad white wing bar (Wikipedia).


This species has a preference for dry open habitats with some bare ground, preferably near water. It lays two blotchy light brown eggs on a ground scrape. It is most active at dawn and dusk. The song is a loud pi-pi-pi-pi-pi-pi-pi (Wikipedia).


Food is insects like grasshoppers and beetles, crustaceans and other invertebrates. It will also take other small prey like amphibians, reptiles and even small rodents.

The Senegal Thick-Knee or Stone-Curlew (Burhinus senegalensis Swainson, 1837) in flight near the fish ponds at Ma’agan Michael Kibbutz, near Jisr az-Zarqa,. Photo Oz Horine. 08.07.2015. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1021457641238514&set=a.115999931784294.19238.100001228633003&type=1&theater

Common Names: 

English: Senegal Thick-Knee, Senegal Stone-Curlew; French: Oedicnème du Sénégal; German: Senegaltriel; Spanish: Alcaraván Senegalés; Italian: L'Occhione del Senegal; Arabic: الكروان الحجري السنغالي . 

The Senegal Thick-Knee or Stone-Curlew (Burhinus senegalensis Swainson, 1837) near the fish ponds at Ma’agan Michael Kibbutz, near Jisr az-Zarqa. Photo Oz Horine. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1021455744572037&set=a.115999931784294.19238.100001228633003&type=1&theater

References and Internet Websites

Dardona, Ayman Wadi’ Youssef (M.Sc. Limnology) and Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa (Dr.Sc. Zoology) (2015). Studying Aquatic Birds in the area between the Gaza Fishermen Port and Wadi Gaza Estuary, Gaza Strip, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 124, April 2015. pp. 22-39. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://birds-of-palestine.webs.com/gaza-aquatic-birds

Khalaf, Nora Norman Ali Bassam (Fotografin, 11 Jahre) (28 Juni 2010). Foto: Junger Strauß, Vogel und Tier Markt, Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/display/21915604 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie’t Al-Talawon fi Al-Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali (1983). The Pine Bunting in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. First Year. Number 1. July 1983. pp. 10-13. Al Salimiah, State of Kuwait. (In Arabic). http://issuu.com/dr-normanalibassamkhalaf/docs/the_pine_bunting_in_palestine_gazel/1 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1984). The Palestine Bulbul. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Second Year. Number 5. May 1984. pp. 19-20. Hanweiler, Saarland, Federal Republic of Germany. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1984-1985). The Weasel Project: Scientific Research on captive weasels (Mustela nivalis, Linnaeus 1766) in the Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, England, during the Academic Year 1984-1985. Supervisor: Dr. Nigel Dunstone. Unpublished scientific research and data & scientific diary. Research Notebook. pp. 1-52. Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1985). The Arabian Ostrich. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, United Kingdom. Volume 3. Number 6. April 1985. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic).
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1986). A List of the Birds of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178-6288. Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, United Kingdom. Number 8. Fourth Year. January 1986 AD, Jamada Oula 1406 H. pp. 1-24. (In Arabic and English).
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1987). A Trip to Kuwait Zoo, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Fifth Year, Number 13, Ramadan 1407 AH, April 1987 AD. pp. 1-5. (in Arabic).  
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). A Trip to Zoo Budapest, Hungary. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 21, Ninth Year, January 1991. pp. 1-4. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae'q Al-Nouma'n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (in Arabic).

The Senegal Thick-Knee or Stone-Curlew (Burhinus senegalensis Swainson, 1837) near the fish ponds at Ma’agan Michael Kibbutz, near Jisr az-Zarqa. Photo Oz Horine. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1021437611240517&set=a.158981497486137.44616.100001228633003&type=1&theater

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Extinct and Endangered Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004 / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-014121-9. Erste Auflage, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten. Zweite erweiterte Auflage, August 2004: 460 Seiten. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third Year, October 2005, Ramadan 1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Member of PALESTA) (2005). Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad (PALESTA). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic).

1. Eurasian Thick-Knee, Palestine/Israel; 2. Bush Thick-Knee, Australia; 3. Spotted Thick-Knee, Tanzania; 4. Beach Thick-Knee, Australia; 5. Peruvian Thick-Knee, Peru; 6. Water Thick-Knee, South Africa; 7. Senegal Thick-Knee, Palestine/Israel. Photos by Oz Horine. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1021511847899760&set=a.587803334603949.1073741828.100001228633003&type=1&theater

Khalaf, Norman Ali (2005, 2006, 2007). Chapter 3: Geography, Flora and Fauna. Pages 32-39. In: Palestine: A Guide. By Mariam Shahin, Photography by George Azar. Co-Author: Norman Ali Khalaf. Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Publishing Group, 2005, 2006, 2007. xi + 471 pages. Appendices to page 500. http://ipsnewsite.mysite4now.com/journals.aspx?id=7323&jid=1&href=fulltext 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Palaestina. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/ 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Arabica. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin حيوانات فلسطين (The Animals of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178-6288. Number 69, September 2007. Pp. 1-4. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%
AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm 

Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Zoologist, Ecologist and Geologist: The Scientific References (1980-2009). http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/ 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). An ancient Arabian Ostrich (Struthio camelus syriacus) egg-shell from the Village of Qidfa, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number 96, December 2009, Thu Al Hijja 1430 AH. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://arabian-ostrich.webs.com/ 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). The Red-Necked Ostrich (Struthio camelus camelus Linnaeus, 1758) at Dubai Zoo, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number 96, December 2009, Thu Al Hijja 1430 AH. pp. 26-28. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.  http://arabian-ostrich.webs.com/ostrichdubaizoo.htm  

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Photographer) (09 December 2009). Photo: Ancient Arabian Ostrich Egg Shell / Alte arabische Straußeneischale. Emirat Fujairah, V. A. Emirate. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/mypics/1213259/display/22065236 

The Senegal Thick-Knee or Stone-Curlew (Burhinus senegalensis Swainson, 1837) in flight near the fish ponds at Ma’agan Michael Kibbutz, near Jisr az-Zarqa, north Palestine. Photo Chen Rozen. 08.07.2015. http://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-4678028,00.html

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Photographer) (15 December 2009). Photo: Ancient Arabian Ostrich Egg Shell, Qidfa Village, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/mypics/1213259/display/21831255 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Fotograf) (04 August 2010). Foto: Nordafrikanische Strauß, Dubai Zoo, Dubai, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/mypics/1213259/display/21993963 
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2014). Fauna Palaestina – Part Four. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2014 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Vier. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2014. ISBN 978-9950-383-77-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2014, Ramadan 1435 H. pp. 456 (English part 378 pages and Arabic part 78 pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-part-1.webs.com/faunapalaestina4.htm

The Senegal Thick-Knee or Stone-Curlew (Burhinus senegalensis Swainson, 1837) near the fish ponds at Ma’agan Michael Kibbutz, near Jisr az-Zarqa, north Palestine. Photo by Chen Rozen. 08.07.2015. http://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-4678028,00.html

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). The Animals living inside and around the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram) in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 116, August 2014, Shawal 1435 AH. pp. 1-23. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-makkah.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf Award for Biodiversity in Palestine 2012 / 2013 : Essay and Photography Contest of the Palestine Sunbird  (Cinnyris osea Bonaparte, 1856). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 124, April 2015. pp. 1-21. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/drnormanakhalafaward.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Plants and Animals unique to Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 125, May 2015. pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine-2.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2015). Fauna Palaestina – Part Five. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2016 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Fünf. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2016. ISBN 978-9950-383-92-0. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2015, Ramadan 1436 H. 448 pp. (English Part 304 Pages and the Arabic Part 144 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-books.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The First Palestinian Wildlife Photography Exhibition in the Gaza Strip in November 2014. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 138, June 2016. pp. 1-35. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/gazawildlifephoto2014.htm 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The Presence of the Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 139, July 2016. pp. 1-23. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-uae.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 140, August 2016. pp. 1-21. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-palestine-2.webs.com/

The Senegal Thick-Knee or Stone-Curlew (Burhinus senegalensis Swainson, 1837) near the fish ponds at Ma’agan Michael Kibbutz, near Jisr az-Zarqa, north Palestine. Photo by Chen Rozen. 08.07.2015. http://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-4678028,00.html

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The Desert Tawny Owl (Strix hadorami Kirwan, Schweizer and Copete, 2015): New Species of Bird Discovered in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 142, October 2016. pp. 1-13. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://birds-of-palestine.webs.com/desert-tawny-owl 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The Pine Bunting (Emberiza leucocephalos Gmelin, S.G., 1771) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 143, November 2016, pp. 1-6. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (In Arabic). http://birds-of-palestine.webs.com/pine-bunting 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). Haywanat Falastin (Fauna of Palestine) حيوانات فلسطين . Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 144, December 2016, pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (In Arabic). http://animals-of-palestine-2.webs.com/fauna-of-palestine-arabic 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2017). Bateleur Eagle (Terathopius ecaudatus Daudin, 1800) : A Rare Record in Palestine in 2015 / Der Gaukler (Terathopius ecaudatus) in Palästina / العُقاب البهلواني أو العُقاب المُصفق : من الطيور النادرة في فلسطين . Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 145, January 2017. pp. 1-22. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In English, German and Arabic). http://birds-of-palestine.webs.com/bateleur-eagle 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher & Nora Norman Ali Khalaf (Photography) (2017). Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus Pallas, 1811) at Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 146, February 2017. pp. 1-25. Dubai & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-uae.webs.com/greater-flamingo

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2017). Melanistic Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus Pallas, 1811) Records from Palestine and Cyprus Between 2013-2015. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 147, March 2017. pp. 1-16. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://birds-of-palestine.webs.com/

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2017). The Senegal Thick-Knee or Stone-Curlew (Burhinus senegalensis Swainson, 1837): New Record for Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 148, April 2017. pp. 1-13. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-palestine-2.webs.com/senegal-thick-knee 


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The Senegal Thick-Knee or Stone-Curlew (Burhinus senegalensis Swainson, 1837) near the fish ponds at Ma’agan Michael Kibbutz, near Jisr az-Zarqa, north Palestine. Photo by Chen Rozen. http://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-4678028,00.html

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YNet. (09.07.2015). Animals. New in Israel: Senegal thick-knee. http://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-4678028,00.html

الكروان الحجري . https://animalsmore.wordpress.com/2010/09/11/%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%83%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AD%D8%AC%D8%B1%D9%8A/

الكروان . فيسبوك . جمعية الصيادين العراقية . https://www.facebook.com/148946001817295/photos/a.749575951754294.1073741839.148946001817295/159260417452520/

The Senegal Thick-Knee or Stone-Curlew (Burhinus senegalensis Swainson, 1837) near the fish ponds at Ma’agan Michael Kibbutz, near Jisr az-Zarqa. Photo by Itai Shanni. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10153006288007285&set=a.10150630503987285.382176.538852284&type=1&theater&notif_t=photo_reply