Hoopoe in Palestine

The Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in Palestine

الهُدهُد في فلسطين

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

Article Reference : Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 140, August 2016. pp. 1-21. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-palestine-2.webs.com/

A Hoopoe at the Gaza Sea Shore near the Fishermen Port, Gaza, Palestine. Photo by my friend the Researcher Ayman Dardouna from Gaza, Palestine. 19.11.2014.

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم . وَتَفَقَّدَ الطَّيْرَ فَقَالَ مَا لِيَ لَا أَرَى الْهُدْهُدَ أَمْ كَانَ مِنَ الْغَائِبِينَ . لَأُعَذِّبَنَّهُ عَذَابًا شَدِيدًا أَوْ لَأَذْبَحَنَّهُ أَوْ لَيَأْتِيَنِّي بِسُلْطَانٍ مُّبِينٍ . فَمَكَثَ غَيْرَ بَعِيدٍ فَقَالَ أَحَطتُ بِمَا لَمْ تُحِطْ بِهِ وَجِئْتُكَ مِن سَبَإٍ بِنَبَإٍ يَقِينٍ . سورة النمل ، الآيات 20-22 

And he (Solomon) sought attendance among the birds and said: How is it that I see not the hoopoe, or is he among the absent? (20). I will surely punish him with a severe punishment or slaughter him unless he brings me clear authorization (21). But the hoopoe stayed not long and said, “I have encompassed [in knowledge] that which you have not encompassed, and I have come to you from Sheba with certain news” (22). Holy Qur’an, Surah Al-Naml 27:20–22.

Hoopoe Painting. A Special Painting which was painted for this article by my friend the Biologist and Artist Raguib Ahmed from Dhaka, Bangladesh. 06.03.2015.

The Hoopoe or Hudhud هُدهُد (in Arabic) communicated with Prophet Sulaiman (Solomon) (Peace Be Upon Him) - who spoke to animals –, and the story was mentioned in the Holy Qur’an. The Prophet Sulaiman-Hudhud communication took place in Al-Quds (Jerusalem), Palestine, where the Prophet has his palace. The Hoopoe )Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) is a common resident in the north and central Palestine, and is a common migrant and winter visitor in the south of Palestine.

The hoopoe was chosen as the national bird of Israel in May 2008 in conjunction with the country's 60th anniversary, following a national survey of 155,000 citizens, outpolling the white-spectacled bulbul (Wikipedia; Khalaf-von Jaffa, July 2016).

The List included also the red falcon, the goldfinch, the biblical vulture, the spur-winged plover, the honey-sucker, the warbler, the white-chested kingfisher, and the white barn owl (Erlichman, 2008).

The Hoopoe is also one of the birds that were considered sacred in Ancient Egypt

The Hoopoe in Jericho, Palestine in 2003. Photo by my friend Imad Atrash, the Executive Director of the Palestine Wildlife Society in Beit Sahour, Palestine.

According to one ancient Arabian tradition, for example, hoopoes originally bore crests of solid gold, bestowed upon them by Prophet (King) Solomon in gratitude for shielding him with their wings from the burning sun one day as he walked through the desert. So many of their number were killed for this valuable accoutrement, however, that eventually they came before Solomon, who was so wise that he could even understand the language of birds, and beseeched him to help them. Touched by their tragic plight, Solomon agreed to do so, as a result of which the hoopoes’ crests were transformed from gold into feathers, thus saving their species from extinction (Shuker, 2011). 

The hoopoes are also said to have brought to Prophet Solomon the shamir – described in the Talmud and Midrash as a tiny but very magical worm that could cut through solid stone, and which greatly assisted him, therefore, in building his First Temple in Jerusalem. (In a similar vein, the hoopoe is also credited with knowledge of where to find a mystical plant called the springwort, whose touch can break through the hardest rocks and stones.) And in the Holy Koran, it was the hoopoe that discovered the Queen “Balqees” of Sheba and informed Prophet Solomon of her existence. Other Arab traditions claim that the hoopoe could unerringly guide Prophet Solomon to undiscovered subterranean springs by using its long bill as a water-divining rod, and consider it to be a doctor among birds, gifted with medicinal powers that can cure any ailment (Shuker, 2011). 

The Hoopoe at Kfar Malek, Ramallah, Palestine in 2009. Photo by my friend Imad Atrash, the Executive Director of the Palestine Wildlife Society in Beit Sahour, Palestine.

In many cultures throughout its extensive Eurasian and African zoogeographical distribution range traditionally deem the hoopoe to be a guide or leader of other birds through dangerous realms to their ultimate destination, as well as a messenger from the invisible supernatural world (this latter role of the hoopoe also features in Aristophanes’s famous play, The Birds). To the ancient Egyptians, it symbolised gratitude, and even appeared as a hieroglyphic. There is also a widespread folk tradition that the hoopoe can forecast storms. Bearing in mind, however, that scientists have shown that it can indeed detect minute atmospheric electrical (piezoelectric) charges that sometimes precede a storm or even an earthquake, this particular example of hoopoe folklore is clearly based upon fact (Shuker, 2011). 

In addition, the hoopoe was viewed as a harbinger of war in Scandinavian legends, and associated in Estonian lore with death and the underworld. Acquiring a more positive role, conversely, in May 2008 it was chosen as the national bird of Israel, and is also the state bird of India’s Punjab province (Shuker, 2011). 

A Hoopoe at Wadi Gaza, Gaza Strip, Palestine. Photo by my friend the Researcher Ayman Dardouna from Gaza, Palestine. 15.11.2014.

Hoopoe Facts

Hoopoe is a bird of the family Upupidae. This colorful bird can be found across the Europe, Asia, Africa and Madagascar. Hoopoe inhabits wide variety of habitats: grasslands, savannas, forests and wooded steppes. Hoopoe is a national bird of Israel and one of the birds that were considered sacred in Ancient Egypt. Main threats to the survival of the hoopoe are habitat loss and climate changes. At the moment, number of hoopoes in the wild is stable. Hoopoe is not on the list of endangered species (Soft Schools). 

A Hoopoe at the Gaza Sea Shore near the Fishermen Port, Gaza, Palestine. Photo by my friend the Researcher Ayman Dardouna from Gaza, Palestine. 19.11.2014.

Interesting Hoopoe Facts:

Hoopoe is a medium-sized bird that can reach length between 9.8 to 12.6 inches and weight between 1.6 and 3.1 ounces. It has a wingspan of 17.3 to 19 inches.

Hoopoe is named after onomatopoeic sound produced by the bird: oop-oop-oop. 

Hoopoe is easily recognized because of its colorful feathers. Bird is cinnamon to chestnut in color, with white and black stripes on the wings and tail. It has prominent, upright crest on its head (Soft Schools).

Hoopoe has long and strong black beak. It is curved and adapted for the feeding on the ground.

Hoopoe eats different type of insects, small reptiles, snails, frogs, seeds, berries and other types of plant materials.

Hoopoe has very muscular bill which can be opened while stuck in the ground when the bird is looking for food.

Hoopoe enjoys bathing on the sun and in the dust. During sunbathing, hoopoe takes specific position: it tilts its head back and spread its wings and tail above the ground.

Subspecies of hoopoe that live in temperate climate belong to group of migratory species. They have large and muscular wings, which are required for the prolonged flights.

Hoopoe is characterized by undulating flight. Movement of its wings resembles the movement of the wings of a butterfly (Soft Schools). 

A Hoopoe at the Gaza Sea Shore near the Fishermen Port, Gaza, Palestine. Photo by my friend the Researcher Ayman Dardouna from Gaza, Palestine. 19.11.2014.

Hoopoe is a territorial animal. Territory is usually populated with a single mating couple. Male will readily fight with intruders to defend its territory. Fights can be very violent and may end with serious eye injuries that can lead to blindness (Soft Schools).

Hoopoe requires cooler climate for breeding. Nests are built in the cavities of trees and stones. They have narrow entrance which prevents predators from entering.

Female is responsible for the nest and for the eggs until the hatching. Male feeds the female during this period.

Female secretes a substance of foul odor from the uropygial gland. This liquid smells like rotten meat. Due to unpleasant smell, most predators will stay away from the nest. On the other hand, insects (hoopoe's food) will be attracted. Number of eggs depends on the climate. It can range from 7 to 12 eggs per season. Eggs are milky white in color. They will hatch after incubation period of 15 to 18 days.

Average lifespan of hoopoe in the wild is 10 years (Soft Schools). 

The Hoopoe in Gaza, Palestine in November 2014. Photo by my friend the Researcher Ayman Dardouna from Gaza, Palestine.

The Reverend Henry Baker Tristram (1822 – 1906) writes in his reference book “The Survey of Western Palestine. The Fauna and Flora of Palestine” (1884): “Family Upupidae : Upupa epops. Linn. Syst. Nat. i., p. 183. Hoopoe. Arab.هدهد Hudhud (from its cry). The Hoopoe, which leaves Palestine in winter, returns in the beginning of March; not seen in flocks, but suddenly spread over the whole country in pairs or in small parties. It resorts alike to the desert wadys, the woods, gardens, and villages, where it is very tame, feeding on dung-hills, indifferent to the presence of man. It does not appear to migrate far, as it remains all winter in Egypt and in the oases of the Sahara”.

The Hoopoe is found in Southern and Central Europe, the whole of Asia, and Northern and Central Africa (Tristram, 1884).

The Hoopoe near the beach of Qaysariya (Caesarea), Occupied Palestine on 09.12.2014. Photo by Sofyan Zhalka.

Israel’s National Bird

As part of Israel's 60th anniversary celebrations, the Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel, in collaboration with the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the Ministry of Education, Tel Aviv University and Israel Discount Bank, initiated a widespread activity to increase people's connection to the landscapes of their homeland through birds. In this manner, Israel joined the ranks of some 90 countries that have already selected their representative national birds (Palyam.org). 

The Israeli initiative was unique in that the selection was made by the public rather than professionals: 9,500 preschools, 4,000 schools and IDF units participated, while the public was able to vote online and at public venues such as the Safari in Ramat Gan and the Biblical Zoo in Jerusalem (Palyam.org).

Ten species of birds were selected after meeting various criteria (e.g. the bird must nest in Israel, and has a link to Jewish heritage). The candidates were: the Griffon Vulture, the Barn Owl, the Lesser Kestrel, the Graceful Prinia, the White-throated Kingfisher, the Hoopoe, the Goldfinch, the Bulbul, the Spur-winged Plover and the Palestine Sunbird. The Hoopoe was selected as the National Bird by a majority vote, with the Graceful Prinia coming in second and the Goldfinch third. The President of Israel Mr. Shimon Peres declared the Hoopoe as the National Bird of Israel at an official ceremony held at the President's Residence (Palyam.org).

Hoopoe - The National Bird of Israel (Upupa epops; Hebrew: Dukhifat): The Hoopoe is a beautiful bird noted for its orange "crown" of feathers. It is orange in color, with shades of black and white on its wings and tail, making its flight comparable to that of a large butterfly. The Hoopoe population is resident in Israel and it nests in holes in tree trunks and vertical walls of homes. Its beak is long, thin and curved and its tongue is long and sticky. The Hoopoe gathers food from the ground with the help of its long beak. Its monotone song, "hood, hood" instilled its Arabic name. In Aramaic it was known as the "mountain carver" because ancient tales tell of the Hoopoe bringing King Solomon the Shamir worm to carve the stone with which to build the Temple (Palyam.org).

References and Internet Websites:

Ali, S. and Ripley, S. D. (1983). Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan. Volume 4 (2 ed.). Oxford University Press, New Delhi. pp. 124–129. 

Battisti, A; Bernardi, M. and Ghiraldo, C. (2000). Predation by the hoopoe (Upupa epops) on pupae of Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the likely influence on other natural enemies. Biocontrol 45 (3): 311–323. 

BirdLife International (2012). Upupa epopsIUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature.


Campus Birds UAE. Hoopoe. Rebecca Baggaley. http://www.uaecb.net/ses-hoopoe/ 

Champion-Jones, R.N. (1937). The Ceylon Hoopoe (Upupa epops ceylonensis Reichb.). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 39 (2): 418. 
Dau, Christian; Paniyak, Jack (1977). Hoopoe, A First Record for North America. Auk 94(3): 601. 
Dupree, N (1974). An Interpretation of the Role of the Hoopoe in Afghan Folklore and Magic. Folklore 85 (3): 173–93. 
Erlichman, Erez (2008). Hoopoe Israel's new national bird. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3549637,00.html 
Feduccia, Alan (1975). The Bony Stapes in the Upupidae and Phoeniculidae: Evidence for Common Ancestry. The Wilson Bulletin 87 (3): 416–417. 
Fry, Hilary C. (2003). Christopher Perrins, ed. Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Firefly Books. p. 382. ISBN 1-55297-777-3
Gulf Vantage. The Hip Hoopoe. http://gulfvantage.com/2011/11/the-hip-hoopoe/ 
Hackett, Shannon J.; et al. (2008). A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their Evolutionary History. Science 320 (1763): 1763–1768. 
Harrison, C.J.O.; Christopher Perrins (1979). Birds: Their Ways, Their World. The Reader’s Digest Association. pp. 303–304. ISBN 0-89577-065-2
Heindel, Matthew T.; Jonathan Alderfer (ed.) (2006). Complete Birds of North America. National Geographic Society. p. 360. ISBN 0-7922-4175-4
Hoopoe. طائر الهُدهُد . http://www.halaluae.com/vb/archive/index.php/t-1123.html 
Houtsma, M. Th (1987). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 990. ISBN 9789004082656

The Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of the Sharjah Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Al-Khan Lagoon, Sharjah, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 26.02.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/16657086426/

Khalaf, Nora Norman Ali Bassam (Fotografin, 11 Jahre) (28 Juni 2010). Foto: Junger Strauß, Vogel und Tier Markt, Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/display/21915604 


Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie’t Al-Talawon fi Al-Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali (1983). The Pine Bunting in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. First Year. Number 1. July 1983. pp. 10-13. Al Salimiah, State of Kuwait. (In Arabic). http://issuu.com/dr-normanalibassamkhalaf/docs/the_pine_bunting_in_palestine_gazel/1 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1984). The Palestine Bulbul. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Second Year. Number 5. May 1984. pp. 19-20. Hanweiler, Saarland, Federal Republic of Germany. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1984-1985). The Weasel Project: Scientific Research on captive weasels (Mustela nivalis, Linnaeus 1766) in the Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, England, during the Academic Year 1984-1985. Supervisor: Dr. Nigel Dunstone. Unpublished scientific research and data & scientific diary. Research Notebook. pp. 1-52. Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1985). The Arabian Ostrich. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, United Kingdom. Volume 3. Number 6. April 1985. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1986). A List of the Birds of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178-6288. Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, United Kingdom. Number 8. Fourth Year. January 1986 AD, Jamada Oula 1406 H. pp. 1-24. (In Arabic and English). 
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1987). A Trip to Kuwait Zoo, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Fifth Year, Number 13, Ramadan 1407 AH, April 1987 AD. pp. 1-5. (in Arabic).  
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). A Trip to Zoo Budapest, Hungary. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 21, Ninth Year, January 1991. pp. 1-4. 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic). 
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae'q Al-Nouma'n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Extinct and Endangered Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004 / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-014121-9. Erste Auflage, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten. Zweite erweiterte Auflage, August 2004: 460 Seiten. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third Year, October 2005, Ramadan 1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic). 
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic). 
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Member of PALESTA) (2005). Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad (PALESTA). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman Ali (2005, 2006, 2007). Chapter 3: Geography, Flora and Fauna. Pages 32-39. In: Palestine: A Guide. By Mariam Shahin, Photography by George Azar. Co-Author: Norman Ali Khalaf. Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Publishing Group, 2005, 2006. xi + 471 pages. Appendices to page 500. http://ipsnewsite.mysite4now.com/journals.aspx?id=7323&jid=1&href=fulltext


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Palaestina. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/ 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Arabica. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin حيوانات فلسطين (The Animals of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%
AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/ 


Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.  http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm

Hoopoe. The Palestinian Authority. Date of Issue: 29.05.1997. http://www.birdtheme.org/country/palestin.html

Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Zoologist, Ecologist and Geologist: The Scientific References (1980-2009). http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/ 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). An ancient Arabian Ostrich (Struthio camelus syriacus) egg-shell from the Village of Qidfa, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number 96, December 2009, Thu Al Hijja 1430 AH. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://arabian-ostrich.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). The Red-Necked Ostrich (Struthio camelus camelus Linnaeus, 1758) at Dubai Zoo, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Twenty-seventh Year, Number 96, December 2009, Thu Al Hijja 1430 AH. pp. 26-28. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.  http://arabian-ostrich.webs.com/ostrichdubaizoo.htm


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Photographer) (09 December 2009). Photo: Ancient Arabian Ostrich Egg Shell / Alte arabische Straußeneischale. Emirat Fujairah, V. A. Emirate. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/mypics/1213259/display/22065236 
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Photographer) (15 December 2009). Photo: Ancient Arabian Ostrich Egg Shell, Qidfa Village, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/mypics/1213259/display/21831255 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Fotograf) (04 August 2010). Foto: Nordafrikanische Strauß, Dubai Zoo, Dubai, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/mypics/1213259/display/21993963 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm 


Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm 


Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2014). Fauna Palaestina – Part Four. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2014 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Vier. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2014. ISBN 978-9950-383-77-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2014, Ramadan 1435 H. pp. 456 (English part 378 pages and Arabic part 78 pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-part-1.webs.com/faunapalaestina4.htm 


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). The Animals living inside and around the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram) in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 116, August 2014, Shawal 1435 AH. pp. 1-23. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-makkah.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf Award for Biodiversity in Palestine 2012 / 2013 : Essay and Photography Contest of the Palestine Sunbird  (Cinnyris osea Bonaparte, 1856). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 124, April 2015. pp. 1-21. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/drnormanakhalafaward.htm 


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Plants and Animals unique to Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 125, May 2015. pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine-2.webs.com/ 

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The First Palestinian Wildlife Photography Exhibition in the Gaza Strip in November 2014. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 138, June 2016. pp. 1-35. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/gazawildlifephoto2014.htm 


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The Presence of the Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 139, July 2016. pp. 1-23. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-uae.webs.com/ 


Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). The Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 140, August 2016. pp. 1-21. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-of-palestine-2.webs.com/


Khalaf, Ola Mostafa (Fotografin) (27 July 2007). Foto: Strauß, Qaryet Al Asad (Löwe Dorf), Kairo-Alexandria Wüsten-Straße, Ägypten. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/extra/buddies/display/21947580 
Khalaf, Ola Mostafa (Fotografin) (02 August 2010). Foto: Afrikanische Straußeneier / African Ostrich Egg-shell. Souk Al Arsah, Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. Fotocommunity. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/extra/buddies/display/22032858

The Hoopoe (Upupa epops Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gardens of the Sharjah Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Al-Khan Lagoon, Sharjah, UAE. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 26.02.2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/16064657313/

Kline, A.S. (2000). The Metamorphoses: They are transformed into birds. Archived from the original on 2007-07-11. 

Kristin, A (2001). Family Upupidae (Hoopoes). In Josep, del Hoyo; Andrew, Elliott; Sargatal, Jordi. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 6, Mousebirds to Hornbills. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 396–411. ISBN 84-87334-30-X


Linnaeus, C (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii). pp. 117–118. 


Mall Hiiemäe, Forty birds in Estonian folklore IV. translate.google.com 

Masood, Nadia (2013). Birds of the UAE. http://nadiamasood.com/birds-of-the-u-a-e 

Martín-Platero, Antonio M. et al. (2006). Characterization of Antimicrobial Substances Produced by Enterococcus faecalis MRR 10-3, Isolated from the Uropygial Gland of the Hoopoe (Upupa epops). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72 (6): 4245–4249. 

Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Palomino, José J. and Soler, Manuel (2004). Strophe Length in Spontaneous Songs Predicts Male Response to Playback in the Hoopoe Upupa epops. Ethology 110 (5): 351–362. 

Mayr, Gerald (2000). Tiny Hoopoe-Like Birds from the Middle Eocene of Messel (Germany). Auk 117 (4): 964–970. 


Olson, Storrs (1975). Paleornithology of St. Helena Island, south Atlantic Ocean. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 23. 

Our Feathered Friends in the UAE. http://www.expatwoman.com/dubai/monthly_home_garden_Birds_In_Dubai_9075.aspx 

Palestinian Group Denounces Israel’s National Bird, The Hoopoe (2012). http://www.algemeiner.com/2012/05/17/palestinian-group-denounces-israels-national-bird-the-hoopoe/ 

Palyam.org. Israel’s National Bird. http://www.palyam.org/About_us/displaySOHarticle?name=Israel%27s%20National%20Bird&id=t00042&bl=b00042


Pforr, Manfred; Alfred Limbrunner (1982). The Breeding Birds of Europe 2: A Photographic Handbook. London: Croom and Helm. p. 82. ISBN 0-7099-2020-2

Phillott, D.C. (Translator) (1908). The Baz-Nama-Yi Nasiri: A Persian Treatise on Falconry. London: Bernard Quaritch. p. 151. 

Pound, Dr. Geoff (2007). Birds of the United Arab Emirates. http://experiencingtheemirates.blogspot.ae/2007/11/birds-of-united-arab-emirates.html

Reichlin, Thomas; Michael Schaub, Myles H. M. Menz, Murielle Mermod, Patricia Portner, Raphaël Arlettaz & Lukas Jenni (2008). Migration patterns of Hoopoe Upupa epops and Wryneck Jynx torquilla: an analysis of European ring recoveries. Journal of Ornithology 150(2): 393. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/227134216_Migration_patterns_of_Hoopoe_Upupa_epops_and_Wryneck_Jynx_torquilla_an_analysis_of_European_ring_recoveries 


Shuker, Dr. Karl (12 March 2011). HOOPOE, HOOPOE - WHEREFORE ART THOU, BRIGHT BUTTERFLY BIRD OF MY YOUTH? http://karlshuker.blogspot.ae/2011/03/hoopoe-hoopoe-wherefore-art-thou-bright.html 

Smith, Margaret (1932). The Persian Mystics 'Attar'. New York: E.P.Dutton and Company. p. 27. 

Soft Schools. Hoopoe Facts. http://www.softschools.com/facts/animals/hoopoe_facts/269/ 

Soper, Tony (1982). Birdwatch. Exeter, England: Webb & Bower. p. 141. ISBN 0-906671-55-8

The Hoopoe. https://goeastyoungwomantodubai.wordpress.com/2008/12/06/the-hoopoe/ 


Tristram, Henry Baker (1884). The Survey of Western Palestine. The Fauna and Flora of Palestine. London, The Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. Pp. 538. https://books.google.ae/books?id=RrsJbgGtuPMC&pg=PA89&lpg=PA89&dq=hoopoe+palestine&source=bl&ots=7fUU__wwTL&sig=jOzxQH4-NoXelMQERjEPsHUxghU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=aYMGVYusFInAPOnLgYAI&ved=0CDkQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=hoopoe%20palestine&f=false


UAEinteract. Natural UAE: Checklist of the Common Species. http://www.uaeinteract.com/nature/bird/specie.asp 

Wikipedia. Hoopoe. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoopoe 

Wikipedia. List of Birds of Palestine. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_birds_of_Palestine

A Hoopoe at Sheikh Ajleen Area, West of Gaza, Palestine. Photo by my friend the Researcher Ayman Dardouna from Gaza, Palestine. 19.03.2015.